Archive for the ‘Film’ Category

50 Greatest Cameras of All Time

March 15, 2011 Leave a comment

A photographer’s ‘first’ camera will always be the one which holds a special place in their heart, whatever we move on to owning. Some of us remain loyal to one brand, one manufacturer or one model throughout our photographic lives. Others are happy to jump to the latest ‘next’ thing or the ‘hot’ model of the time. Whichever route you take when it comes to owning cameras, there is always a certain sense of nostalgia for those cameras from the past and there are few better ways to spend your non-shooting time than by compiling the ‘greatest ever’ list.Rather than just rely on our personal likes and dislikes, we asked the country’s retailers to supply us with their top ten lists and a few of our Photography Monthly Masters to chip in with their votes to help us compile the 50 greatest cameras of all time in no particular order. They are all winners in our eyes. Is it the ultimate list? Or just a good starting point? Only you can decide; either way, for some of you it will be a trip down memory lane and for others an introductionto some of the forgotten classics.

50 Yashicamat 124The Yashicamat 124 is a twin-lens reflex (TLR) that is based on the much more expensive and iconic Rolleiflex system of medium-format cameras and was first introduced in 1957. It’s a capable camera with a good lens and the perfect low-price introduction to shooting square-format images.

49 Nikon D300sAnother big favourite with our readers. The D300S is a 12.3 megapixel DX format model launched in 2009. It replaced the D300 as Nikon’s DX format flagship DSLR by adding HD video recording (with autofocus). It has similarities to the Nikon D700, with the same resolution, but has a smaller, higher-density sensor.

48 Pentax K1000The K1000 was produced from 1976 to 1997 and if you went to art school during this period it was probably the camera you were given to use. They are still being handed out today! The K1000’s longevity makes it significant, despite its ordinary design. It was already technically obsolete in 1976, but its inexpensive simplicity made it a popular workhorse.

47 Sinar Norma Invented in 1947 asa large-format camera ofhigh precision and simple operation, with a system of parts that were readily interchangeable. The name Sinar is an acronym forStudio, Industry, Nature, Architecture, Reproduction, which sums up the versatility of the system. The Sinar Norma, made from 1947 to 1970, is a technological and industrial design icon.

46 Nikon D90The D90 is a 12.3 megapixel model launched in 2008 to replace the D80 and it is a firm favourite with our readers. The updated model includes live view capability and automatic correction of lateral chromatic aberration. It was also the first DSLR to offer video recording, with the ability to record HD 720p videos, with mono sound, at 24 frames per second and has a high resolution rear LCD screen. A built-in autofocus motor means that all Nikon F-mount autofocus lenses (except for the two rare Nikon F3AF) can be used in autofocus mode. The D90 was also the first Nikon camerato include a third firmware module, labelled ‘L’, which provides an updateable lens distance integration database that improves autoexposure.

45 Canon F-1The Canon F-1 was producedby Canon from 1971 to 1976 and was the model that saw the introduction of the Canon FD lens mount. The F-1 was Canon’s first truly professional-grade SLR system, supporting a huge variety of accessories and interchangeable parts so it could be adapted for different uses and preferences.

44 Pentax Auto 110Launched in 1978 the Pentax Auto 110 and Pentax Auto 110 Super were single-lens reflex cameras made by Asahi Pentax. The Auto 110 was introduced with three interchangeable lenses. A precursor to today’s compact camera systems it claims to have been the smallest interchangeable-lens SLR system created made to professional quality.

43 Pentax K20DThe K20D body was developed by Pentax while its CMOS sensor was manufactured by Samsung, which became Pentax’s partner in 2005. Until 2008, the K20D held the record for the highest resolution sensor in theAPS-C image sensor format,at 14.6 megapixels.

42 Hasselblad 503CWThe Hasselblad that brings old school to new ways. The 503CW can deal with analogue and digital capture thanks to the range of digital backs available. The perfect option for those unwilling to give up film.

41 Sony Alpha 900The α900 is Sony’s current flagship digital SLR, introduced in September 2008. As well as a hostof pro features it includesa massive 24.6 megapixelfull-frame CMOS sensor which makes it an obviousinclusion in our list forthat reason alone.

40 Canon T90 A lot of you still seem to be very fond of the Canon T90, which was first introduced in 1986, as the top of the line in Canon’s T series of 35mm SLRs. It was the last professional-level manual-focus camera from Canon, and the last professional camera to use the Canon FD lens mount. Although it was rapidly overtaken by the autofocus revolution and Canon’s EOS (Electro-Optical System) cameras after only a year in production, the T90 pioneered many concepts seen in high-end Canon cameras up to the present day, particularly the user interface, industrial design and high level of automation. Due to its rugged build, the T90 was nicknamed ‘the tank’ by Japanese photojournalists. Many photographers and retailers still rate the T90 highly even after 20 years as it is considered by many to have been the best slr Canon ever.

39 Nikon D2X The D2X is a 12.4 megapixel camera which was launchedby Nikon in 2004. The D2X was the highest resolution flagship in Nikon’s DSLR line until June 2006 when it was supplanted by the D2Xs and later by the Nikon D700 and Nikon D3, both using a newFX full-format sensor.

38 Olympus OM-1 The OM-1 really is one of the most loved and highly regarded of film SLRs. The first model was launched in 1972 and was called the M-1. Thirteen years earlier, the release of the Nikon F had made the 35mm SLR the standard choice for professionals accustomed to using Leicas and other rangefinders, but it had driven the market towards heavy and bulky cameras. The Olympus M-1 changed all that and with it began a reduction of size, weight and noise of the 35mm SLRs. Since Leica’s flagship rangefinder cameras are known as the M Series, the company complained about the name of the M-1, forcing Olympus to rename it theOM-1. The OM-1 is an all-mechanical SLR with a very large viewfinder with interchangeable screens but a fixed prism. It also featuresa through-the-lens exposure meter and, quirkily, has the shutter speed dial around the lens mount rather than on the camera’s top plate. It’s not fashionable but it is brilliant.

37 Nikon D40Despite having been on the market since late 2006, the D40 still has some benefits over its newer rivals. Because only six megapixels are fitted on to the standard Nikon DX format sensor, the sensitivity of each pixel is higher. The default sensitivity is ISO 200 and it adds an ISO 3200 speed (listed as ‘Hi1’ in the camera menu). The D40 has a very fast 1/500 flash sync, useful for daytime fill-flash. This compares to the typical 1/200 sync speed of other entry level and even some semi-pro DSLR cameras. But the D40 lacks a built-in autofocus motor, so only Nikon lenses with AF-I, AF-S or compatible focus motors can be used in autofocus mode.

36 Canon EOS 5DThe EOS 5D, launched in 2005, was a landmark camera. It was a 12.8 megapixel DSLR and the first with a full-frame sensor at an incredibly low price which made professional quality digital images available to all. The professional market changed overnight and despite what are now considered low ISOs, the 5D remains amuch-loved industry favourite.

35 Mamiya RZ67The RZ67 is the mediumformat workhorse of the pro industry and a modularsystem, meaning that lenses, viewfinders, ground glasses, film winders and film backsare all interchangeable. The RZ67 is designed primarily for studio use, but is often usedon location as well.

34 Panasonic DMC-LX3The Panasonic Lumix DMC-LX3, or LX3, is a high-end compact camera launched in 2008 as a successor to the LX2 and continues to be oneof the best high-end compact point and shoots available.

33 Nikon D700 Another much-loved recent model from Nikon, the D700 is a professional grade dslr launched in 2008. It uses the same 12.1 megapixel FX-CMOS image sensor as the D3 and is Nikon’s second full-frame digital SLR camera. The D700’s full-frame sensor allows the use of non-DX F-mount lenses to their fullest advantage, with no cropfactor. The D700 bearsa physical similarity to the D300 and has a built-in autofocus motor for all Nikon autofocus-lenses, includes CPU and metering for older Nikon F-mountAI/AI-S lenses, and supports PC-E lenses.

32 Canon A-1Launched in 1978 the A-1 is historically significant because it was the first SLR to offer an electronically controlled programmed auto-exposure mode. Instead of the photographer picking a shutter speed to freeze or blur motion and choosing a lens aperturef-stop to control depth of field (focus), the A-1 has a microprocessor programmed to automatically select a compromise exposure which is based on light meter input. Virtually all cameras today have at least one program mode.

31 Nikon FM2 The FM2 was designed notfor budget minded snappers who would never take the time to learn to use shutter-speeds and aperture settings, but instead to appeal to serious photographers who demanded a tough, rugged camera.At the time of the FM2’s launch in 1982, Nikon believed that advanced photographers were not interested in every latest technology, but instead favoured high quality and precision workmanship.The FM2 is very mucha photographer’s camera.

30 Pentax ME FThe ME F was the first autofocus (AF) 35mm SLR camera to reach production. It had a built-in through-the-lens (TTL) electronic contrast detection system to automatically determine proper subject focus and drive a lens to that focus point. Although it auto-focused poorly and was a commercial failure, the ME F wasa milestone in camera technology, pointing the way to present-day AF SLRs.

29 Rolleiflex TLRThe Rolleiflex medium-format TLR (twin lens reflex) film cameras launched in 1929 were loved for their compact size, light weight, superior optics, durable and simple mechanics and bright viewfinders. The mechanical wind mechanism was robust and clever, making film loading semi-automatic and quick. A wide range of accessories made this camera a more complete system, allowing close-ups, added filters and quick tripod attachment. Still much loved and used, particularly by art photographers.

28 Nikon SP RangefinderThe SP is a professional level, interchangeable lens, 35mm film, rangefinder camera launched in 1957 as the culmination of Nikon’s RF development which began in 1948 with the Nikon I. It is considered the most advanced rangefinder of its time.

27 Bronica EC-TLIIOften unfairly seen as the poor man’s Hasselblad, the ‘Bronnie’ was many people’s first medium-format camera. A reasonable price combined with a huge range of lenses available made the ‘Bronnie’a great enthusiast’s choice.

26 Hasselblad 500ELIn 1964 Hasselblad started production of the motorised 500EL. Apart from the housing that incorporates the motor drive and the batteries, the EL was similar in appearance and operationto the Hasselblad 500C and uses the same magazines, lenses and viewfinders.

25 Leica M9The latest in the legendary rangefinder M series from Leica and only the second ina digital format featuring an 18.5 megapixel sensor.

24 Holga 120NFew cameras create their own aesthetic but the Holga definitely has. It is an inexpensive, medium-format 120 film toy camera, made in China. The Holga’s low-cost construction and simple lens gives pictures that display vignetting, blur, light leaks and other distortions, all of which have led to the camera gaining a cult following.

23 Kodak Retina IIICThe Retina, launched in 1936, was a compact folding camera which pioneered the 135 film format. The IIIC first appeared in 1957 and was the fifthand final development ofthe original model.

22 Olympus Pen E-P1Beautifully designed and named after Olympic’s original half-frame 35mm Pencameras launched in 1959, the E-P1 is another of the cameras leading the way in the compact system revolution.

21Canon EOS 7DJust as you were saving up for a 5D MkII, Canon brought out the 7D and made many of the qualities of the MkII available at an even lower price, even adding a host of facilities new to the EOS range.

20 Olympus TripThe Trip 35 was introduced in 1967 and discontinued in 1984. The name referred to its intended market, people who wanted a compact camera for holidays. More than ten million were sold. This point and shoot model had a solar powered selenium light meter and just two shutter speeds. Although the Trip is coming back into fashion due to its quality and ecological credentials, you can pay as little as £10 for one.

19 GandolfiThe maker of one of the greatest handmade large-format cameras ever made. Based in London, ithas been making and repairing cameras since 1885.

18 Pentax 6x7A fond favourite of any pro who worked with it throughout the seventies and eighties despite its weight and tendency to spend more time being repaired than used. The Pentax 6×7 looks like and is operated like a regular 35mm SLR camera but is loaded with either 120 or 220 roll film, which produces 10 or 206×7 format exposures. You have to love this camera with its wooden handle attachment and tank-like construction.

17 Rollei 35 The Rollei 35 is a 35mm miniature viewfinder camera launched in 1966, when it was the smallest 135 film camera ever. Even today the Rollei 35 series remains the smallest mechanically working 35mm cameras ever built.

16 Zeiss Contaflex Super BC The Contaflex SLR, introduced in 1953, was one of the first 35mm SLR cameras equipped with a between-the-lens leaf shutter. The Super, launched in 1959, is easily recognisable by the wheel on the front plate for setting the aperture.

15 Leica IIIThis quirky rangefinder launched in 1933 used a coupled rangefinder distinct from the viewfinder. The latter was set for a 50mm lens and to use other lenses required an alternate viewfinder on the accessory socket.

14 Olympus PenThe Pen half-frame, fixed-lens viewfinder cameras were made from 1959 to the start of the eighties. The original was one of the smallest cameras to use 35mm film in 135 cassettes.

13 Polaroid SX-70The original SX-70 was beautiful with a folding body finished in brushed chrome and tan leather panels. It had a whole array of accessories, including a close-up lens, electrical remote shutter release and a tripod mount.

12 Ilford WitnessThe Ilford Witness was a rangefinder with interchangeable lenses announced in 1947, but not released until 1953 because of manufacturing difficulties. A true industry secret due to its quality and rarity.

11 Panasonic GF1Released in 2009, the GF1 has a strong following among pro and enthusiast photographers as a compact system camera which can change the way you can create images. Great quality of build and image.

10 Canon eos 1D MkIV The 1D has always been the peak of Canon’s camera range in all its different forms. However, the MkIII didn’t make many friends and took a little of the shine off the 1D for some. The MkIV has converted those doubters. It’s a solid piece of pro kit that gets everything right including making the 1D first choice again.

9 Nikon FIntroduced in 1959 and an instant classic, the Nikon F introduced the concept of the modular 35mm single-lens reflex camera (SLR) and changed the way in which photographers could take pictures, from the fashion studios of swinging London to the war zones of Vietnam.The F-bayonet mount isstill in use today, andremains essentially unchanged, except for some minor refinements to keep pace with technology.

8 Leica M4A classic within the legendary M series, the M4 was introduced in 1967 and is the direct successor of the M3and M2. Three ergonomic modifications were introduced in the M4: A different, angled film advance lever, as well as slightly different rewind,self-timer and frame selection levers; a crank for rewinding the film, replacing the telescopic knob of the M3;and a faster loadingsystem that did not needa removable spool.

7 Mamiya 7IIThe Mamiya 7II is a medium format 6x7cm rangefinder camera with interchangeable leaf shutter lenses but is no bigger than top 35mm SLRs. Quiet, compact and lightweight, the 7II has a panoramic adaptor accessory that can also be added for true 24x65mm panoramic images.

6 Canon EOS 5D MkII The camera which brought about the birth of convergence between photographers and filmmakers. The 5D MkII has become a landmark camera which is being used by pro photographers and Hollywood film-makers. The final episode of the US medical drama House was shot on a 5D MkII.

5 Contax RTS-3The RTS (short for Real Time System), was created by the Porsche Design studios and was the beginning of the new Contax line of SLR cameras which brought 13 different models. The RTS-3 became an instant hit with pro photographers the moment it was launched due to its looks, build and image quality.

4 MinoxMinox is famed for its subminiature cameras. Originally launched as luxury items, they gained notoriety as a spy camera during the Second World War. Production moved from Latvia to Germany after the war. Minox continues to make miniature cameras today. Just keep it secret!

3 Hasselblad 500CM The professional’s first choice medium-format camera for more than 40 years. The 500 was the second generation of the Hasselblad 6x6cm format film and was launched in 1957. Strong build, high-quality lenses and ease of use have made it the professional photographer’s friend, whatever they are shooting.

2 Nikon D3sThe latest top pro offering in the Nikon range. The D3s has broken new ground with its incredibly high ISO capability and super tough build and construction. Designed to meet the needs of the most demanding of pro photographers, it deliversand then some.

1 Kodak BrownieThe Brownie, launched in 1900, popularised low-cost photography and introduced the concept of the snapshot. The original cardboard box camera took 2.25in sq pictures. The 127 modelsold millions from1952 to 1967.

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Ansel Adams’ Home and Darkroom

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Review of a Nikon F6 on Amazon

You Must By a Cartridge of Tape

…Richard Fee found this review of a Nikon F6 on Amazon, via R.O. Teague’s twitter:

Now, this could well be a joke, and probably is. But none of the guy’s other reviews are ironic, sarcastic, or humorous, and just the possibility that this could be sincere was enough to make me chuckle.

I especially like the line “You must by a cartridge of tape.”

(Thanks to Richard)

Featured Comment by Slobodan Blagojevic: “…And 83 people found his review actually helpful…now, that is really scary. 😉 ”

UPDATE from Quan Ha: “The reviewer did eventually chime in to let everyone in on the joke:

Posted on Feb. 20, 2011 9:51 PM PST / Last edited by the author 1 hour ago / R. Sawyer says: Thanks for the compliments! Glad my review is HELPFUL to so many people (Holy moly—210 and counting!). I wrote this review after spending weeks on a mundane writing assignment while I was in my last year of law school. Tired of the lengthy techno-group-think reviews found everywhere on camera sites, I wanted to write something pithy, and satire is my favorite form of humor. […] Hopefully this inspires more of you to sprinkle fun reviews throughout the web. However, be cautioned: as many of these angry comments suggest, satire is the fine wine of humor, and you may want to start with something more universally understandable like puns. The best part about this “15-minutes of fame” is that my wife now thinks that I might actually be funny. Sense of humor validated. Now for a shameless plug, Ken Rockwell style— <—shameless plug for my business.

83 out of 278 people found the review helpful!” What more can I say?! :))

Source: the online photographer

Vivian Maier: A life’s lost work seen for first time

February 9, 2011 3 comments

The photographs reveal teeming streets, children at play in an alley, couples captured in a sleepy embrace, the intricate latticework of an elevated train platform, a drunk smeared in filth.

The arresting, artfully framed scenes from the streets and byways of New York, Chicago and beyond seem alive with movement. And for years, they were probably seen by no-one but the solitary Chicago nanny and amateur photographer who shot them.

But now, two years after her death in a nursing home, Vivian Maier is finally being recognised for her talent after a lifetime of obscurity.

Her life’s work, hundreds of thousands of black and white and colour photographs, was locked away in an abandoned storage unit, only to be revealed to the world after her death.

Maier was born in New York City in 1926, but many details of her life remain a mystery.

She spent some of her formative years in France and when she moved to Chicago after World War II to work as a nanny, she spoke with a French accent that delighted her charges.

Years later, the children she looked after described her as a Mary Poppins-like figure who took them on wild adventures and showed them unusual things.

According to those who knew her, Maier was opinionated and incredibly private. She worked for one family in Chicago for 17 years and as they tell it, she neither made nor received a single telephone call the entire time.
Remarkable trove

On her days off, she would walk the streets taking photographs, poignant and humorous scenes from everyday life. A man sleeping on the beach, children smiling, a woman dressed in her finest climbing into a ’57 Chevy.

Her black and white photographs, many taken in the 1950s and 60s, captured the energy and feeling of the world as she viewed it.

But as far as anyone knows, she never showed her work.

In 2007, John Maloof, then a 26-year-old real estate agent in Chicago, was working on a book about his north-west Chicago neighbourhood.

At an auction of the contents of an abandoned storage unit, he paid $400 (£252) for a box of what he thought were negatives of historical architecture photographs.

But after inspecting them, he saw that none of the roughly 30,000 negatives were architectural photographs and, disappointed, he set the box aside.

About two years later, curiosity got the better of him and he began developing the negatives and scanning them one by one into his computer. And he began to realise he had stumbled across a remarkable trove.

“It wasn’t a ‘eureka’ moment,” he says. “Over time, she taught me that her work was good. I looked at her photos and learned about photography, how hard it is to take a good photograph.”

A novice to photography, Mr Maloof knew little about what he was viewing. Seeking feedback, he posted some of her work on the popular photography site Flickr. The response was overwhelming: hundreds of comments from shocked and impressed viewers.

Maier’s quick eye and artful technical skill have garnered something of a cult following online.

She has been compared to great photographers Robert Frank and Walker Evans, and as more people discover her work, her stature continues to grow.
Seeking clues

Once Mr Maloof realised how special the work was, he set out to learn the photographer’s identity. On the back of an envelope in one of the boxes, he found written the name Vivian Maier.

A Google search revealed a just-published obituary: Maier had died at 83 just three days earlier.

Using clues gleaned from the obituary, he got in touch with some of the families that had employed her over the years, and a picture of her life began to come into focus.

“She was a loner, a solitary person, she died alone with no kids or family or love life,” Mr Maloof says.

He sees her as a patron for the poor, using her camera to give a voice to the voiceless. Many of her subjects live at society’s margins, and her images show the truth about what she saw around her, not just the beautiful, Mr Maloof says.

He says she inspired him to become a photographer, and he set himself to saving the rest of her work.

He estimates he now has acquired 95% of her work from other collectors: hundreds of thousands of negatives, undeveloped rolls of film. He has been diligently developing and scanning her work and posting the photos on a blog he created for the collection.

Although Maier was a private person and kept her work to herself, Mr Maloof has received inquiries from exhibitors, book publishers and filmmakers, and her photographs have been shown in Denmark and Chicago.

“She was using photography to fill in a void emotionally, perhaps to satisfy herself,” Mr Maloof said. “The work has a life of its own. People want to see it.”


BBC (By Katie Beck BBC World News America)

Other links, other stories and Maier’s photos:

Happy New Year!

December 31, 2010 Leave a comment

La multi ani tuturor! Va doresc un an mai vesel si plin de zambet si lumina buna!
Sa ne vedem cu bine la anul! 🙂

Si un citat care mie mi-a incalzit sufletul! Pe langa vin fiert cu scortisoara, mar si cozonac! 🙂

Watch, listen, shoot every day, not everyday, look at the best work obsessively, give yourself time, realize you just ain’t got it when comparing your work to the very best, don’t get cynical, reinvestigate hallucinogens to expand your thinking (optional), take more photos (not optional), browse your archive and cringe, and (hopefully) smile that at least you’re not that bad anymore, thank god you didn’t submit any of those to HCSP, ponder what you’ll think of your current work in 12 months, see previous, rethink yourself 20 times before starting a thread on HCSP, kill your television, worship your gods then kill them, with reverence, get off your computer and go outside, take more photos, use less equipment, screw on your balls of steel, treat yourself to a cool bag that doesn’t look like a camera bag (as much), shoot some chromes on a 40-year-old rangefinder, look at some of the best 40-year-old photos taken on a rangefinder, smack your head and say holy **** they were good, take pictures, make glorious failures, take pictures, loosen the **** up, buy an ipod and listen to Tom Waits (vintage) while on the street, and realize that good street photography is ****ing Everest so lighten up, give yourself a break, celebrate good work, learn, learn, learn, shoot, shoot, shoot and most importantly, get the **** out the door.

At least that’s what I tell myself, and I have to commute.

Oh yeah, and smile. Always smile.

– Tom Hyde

New Portra 400, from Kodak!

November 10, 2010 Leave a comment

Kodak prezinta la Photokina 2010 un nou film fotografic negativ color: Portra 400.

Kodak Portra 400 inlocuieste peliculele Portra 400 NC si Portra 400 VC, iar producatorul arata ca noul film va prezenta o combinatie optima de contrast, rezolutie si saturatia culorilor.
Noua pelicula va fi disponibila in formate 135, 120, 220 si cutii cu 10 filme in format 4 x 5 inch, incepind cu octombrie a.c. Stocurile actuale de pelicule Portra 400 NC si Portra 400 VC sunt suficiente pentru anul 2010.

Kodak Professional Portra 400 film

Filmul va fi disponibil din luna octombrie, anul acesta.

135-36 propack (5 rolls) Catalog# 6031678
120 propack (5 rolls) Catalog# 8331506
220 propack (5 rolls) Catalog# 8374290
10 Sheet 4 x 5 inch Catalog# 8806465


Un fapt important pentru cei care folosesc film de asa400 si anume ca…
Tell me about new KODAK PROFESSIONAL PORTRA 400.
PORTRA 400 is the world’s finest grain high-speed color negative film. At true ISO 400 speed, this film delivers spectacular skin tones plus exceptional color saturation over a wide range of lighting conditions.

E bine de stiut ca unii se mai gandesc si la noi, cei care inca mai folosim film. Insa nu stiu de ce am presentimentul ca mai nou apar filme care imita digitalul, ca si Ektar, de altfel. Personal prefer sa simt grainul filmului asa cum era odinioara pe Ektachrome 64. Pacat ca l-au scos din productie. La fel si Fujifilm Neopan 400, pe 120.

Sa scoatem la iveala filmele saturate pentru o toamna minunata ca aceasta! 😉

Lumina buna!

Life without PHOTOSHOP

October 13, 2010 Leave a comment

Pentru ca in ultima vreme am tras chiulul pe blogul cu si despre film, o sa va relatez o poveste. O poveste a unui bun si drag prieten si anume Augustin Popescu.

Povestea este despre film si photoshoparea filmului. Cititi cu drag, cei care inca mai folositi pelicula. Si nu doar voi 🙂 Impartasiti. A imparatasi inseamna cunoastere si pentru altii ca voi, care ati inceput candva a cunoaste aceasta placere a vietii – fotografia.

“Povestea cu prelucratul sau nu a imaginilor capturate pe senzor este o poveste oarecum interesantă. De multe ori am auzit: „eu nu prelucrez in Photoshop” sau „dacă nu se inventa prelucrarea pe calculator ce făceai?”. Aţi auzit şi voi, nu?!?
Dar nu vreau să analizez motivele pentru care unii utilizatori de aparate de fotografiat digitale nu agrează prelucrarea a ceea ce a rezultat din apăsarea declanşatorului. Nu acesta este scopul acestui articol. Vreau să vă povestesc despre altceva. Vreau să vă povestesc despre fotografia pe film. Şi aici nu mă refer la stilurile LOMO, YOLA sau VOICU, ci la fotografie prelucrată manual intr-un atelier foto*. Şi ca să simplific lucrurile mă voi referi doar la fotografia alb-negru.
. Vreau să vă povestesc despre „chinurile” prin care trece imaginea imprimată pe materialul fotosensibil negativ. Chinuri pe care le indura cu stoicism de la scoaterea din aparat şi până ce fotografia era inrămată şi pusă la loc de cinste pe perete in „camera bună”.
. Dar mai intâi să inţelegem noţiunea de material fotosensibil.
. Materialul fotosensibil indispensabil pentru realizarea unei fotografii argentice se compune din două părţi distincte: suportul transparent şi stratul de gelatină impregnat cu săruri de argint sensibile la lumină, denumit emulsie. Pentru a reproduce subiectul cât mai fidel in alb-negru, inclusiv semitonurile, la aceste săruri se adaugă diferiţi pigmenţi.
. Primul dintre chinuri se numeşte proces negativ şi inglobează totalitatea operaţiilor ulterioare inregistrării pe materialul fotosensibil a unei imagini, care au ca scop obţinerea unui negativ. Etapele procesului negativ sunt, de regulă, developarea, clătirea, fixarea, spălarea, clătirea in acid acetic diluat şi uscarea.
. Developarea este operaţia prin care, folosind o substanţă de developare (numită revelator) apare imaginea fotografică pe emulsiile negative. Developarea produce o reducere a sărurilor de argint proporţională cu intensitatea luminoasă la care a fost supusă suprafaţa sensibilă. Developarea se face intr-o baie de developare. Compoziţia băii de developare, precum şi durata developării influenţează direct densitatea şi contrastul negativului şi implicit contrastul şi tonalitatea imaginii pozitive. Este dificil de precizat o durată optimă de developare deoarece aceasta depinde de contrastul dorit. Durata de developare se determină in funcţie de contrastul care convine cel mai bine scopului urmărit, genului de lucrare sau/şi hârtiei fotografice pe care se va copia. Hmm… deja sună a prelucrare, nu?
. Urmează baia de intrerupere in care se introduc emulsiile fotosensibile, pentru circa 30-60s după scoaterea din revelator. Baia de intrerupere opreşte aproape instantaneu acţiunea revelatorului. Fără a fi absolut obligatorie, baia de intrerupere este necesară şi recomandabilă deoarece evită apariţia petelor datorate inegalităţilor de developare.
. Urmează fixarea. Fixarea este operaţia prin care halogenura de argint impresionată de lumină este redusă in argint metalic prin procesul developării. Insă in stratul de emulsie mai rămâne o cantitate mare de halogenură de argint neredusă (75-80%), care trebuie indepărtată in mod obligatoriu, deoarece in caz contrar, se va reduce treptat sub acţiunea luminii in argint metalic, degradând iremediabil imaginea fotografică iniţială.
. Următorul pas este uscarea negativului. Pentru a obţine o granulaţie mai mare a negativului se poate trata materialul, după spălare, intr-o baie de alcool denaturat. Şi iar sună a prelucrare…
. In cazul in care negativul a fost subexpus sau subdevelopat, prin folosirea unei băi de innălbire se poate creşte densitatea şi contrastul imaginii cu până la 40%. Deasemenea se poate mări şi granulaţia in funcţie de substanţele chimice folosite in baia de innălbire. Prelucrare?
. Tot prin folosirea anumitor substanţe chimice in baia de innălbire se pot imbunătăţii doar detaliile in zonele intunecate sau se poate reduce contrastul. Prelucrare?
. In cazul in care sensibilitatea negativului este mai mică decât timpul necesar inregistrării unor imagini corect expuse se vor obţine negative subexpuse; caz in care inainte de developare materialul fotosensibil se va introduce intr-o baie de intensificare, apoi se spală şi se developează normal. Câştigul de sensibilitate poate fi de două ori sau mai mult, in funcţie de emulsia folosită. Prelucrare?
. Prelucrările gen solarizarea, pseudosolarizarea sau basorelieful… au apărut cu mult inaintea Photoshop-ului. Photoshop-ul nu a inventat coada la cireaşă, ci doar a digitalizat-o.
. Odată ce negativul a fost… prelucrat se poate trece la procesul pozitiv. Acesta este stadiul de prelucrare fotografică ce are drept scop obţinerea de pe un negativ a unei copii pozitive.
. Spre deosebire de printarea imaginilor digitale la diferite dimensiuni, in cazul copiilor pozitive de pe negativ ii sunt necesari timpi diferiţi de expunere in funcţie de dimensiunea dorită. Cu cât mărirea este mai apreciabilă, cu atât timpul necesar de expunere este mai lung. Prelucrare?
. Pentru redresarea liniilor de fugă se poate inclina rama in care este prinsă hârtia fotosensibilă la aparatul de mărit. Dar prin inclinarea ramei de copiat, o extremitate a hârtiei sensibile va primi o iluminare mai puternică. Pentru corectarea inegalităţii de iluminare se maschează o anumită durată de timp partea hârtiei aflată mai aproape de obiectiv. Prelucrare?
. Pentru a obţine o fotografie high-key este necesară o expunere mai lungă decât in mod normal, apoi se va developa intr-un revelator foarte diluat şi in a cărui compoziţie să nu intre substanţe ce accentuează contrastul sau care pot facilita apariţia voalului. Prelucrare?
. Pentru a obţine o fotografie low-key se va alege un negativ cât mai contrast care va fi copiat pe hârtie cu gradaţie contrastă, efectuându-se o expunere bogată. Deasemenea se va folosi un revelator energic. Prelucrare?
. Pentru a obţine fotografii cu un aspect catifelat, dar totuţi viguros se folosea hârtia carbon.
. Pentru fotografii lucioase se folosea folie de celofan lipită peste acestea. Dacă se dorea virarea spre sepia se folosea celofan colorat. Prelucrare?
. Dar să nu uităm de retuşuri (tot prelucrări). Retuşul negativ presupune corectarea prin intervenţie mecanică pe imaginile negative a petelor luminoase, zgârieturilor şi a altor defecte similare. Retuşul negativ se realizează prin haşurare cu vârful unui creion (un fel de healing brush). Pentru ca grafitul să adere la stratul de emulsie se aplică pe suprafaţa acesteia matolein. In cazul unui retuş nereuşit, lacul matolein impreună cu grafitul se poate şterge cu ajutorul terebentinei (un fel de undo, nu?). Pentru suprafeţe mai intinse se foloseşte neococcina.
. Pentru scoaterea punctelor negre (pete pe senzor?) se foloseşte bisturiul, lama de bărbierit sau cuţite speciale sau pentru pretenţioşi (fanii CS5 de azi) creioane abrazive (eraser?).
. In funcţie de revelatorul folosit anumite tipuri de hârtie fotografică permit obţinerea de tonuri mergând de la negru cald la brun, sepia sau purpuriu.
. Pe vremuri orice retuşor care se respecta avea in trusa sa un instrument asemănător unui vaporizator perfecţionat, numit aerograf. Aerograful era folosit pentru imprăştierea unui strat fin de substanţă indispensabilă atât pentru retuşul negativ cât şi pentru cel pozitiv. Cu ajutorul aerografului se puteau realiza trucaje şi alte operaţiuni imposibil de realizat altfel; datorită lui era suprimată dificila şi migăloasa operaţie de disimulare a fundalurilor cu ajutorul estompei sau pensulei. Deasemenea era folosit in obţinerea degradeurilor, vignetărilor, etc.
. Trusa de creioane a unui retuşor conţinea creioane cu mină tare, notată cu H, de diferite intensităţi de la 1 la 9 şi mină moale, notată cu B, a căror intensităţi sunt de la 1 la 6 (un fel de pencil).
. Operaţiunile de retuş se executau pe pultul (masa) de retuş sau pe planşeta de retuş (un fel de fereastră principală in PS) care era inclinat la cca.60°.
. Tot in trusa retuşorului se găseau şi măşti (sună cunoscut?). De regulă, măştile erau confecţionate din hârtie neagră sau carton, eventual plăcuţe de tablă subţire de aluminiu, care aveau prevăzută in mijloc o decupare de dimensiuni şi forme diferite. Se folosea atunci când se dorea ca subiectul, de obicei un portret, să fie incadrat de margini albe, fără contur precis, imaginea fotografică incadrându-se in deschizătura centrală a măştii.
. Cu ajutorul aparatului de mărit sau a ghilotinei se stabileşte raportul laturilor sau se elimină elementele nedorite din cadru (sună a crop?).

. In concluzie se poate trăi şi fără editare computerizată, dar prelucrările au existat, există şi vor exista pentru că nu se va inventa prea curând aparatul de fotografiat care să exprime exact viziunea fotografului indiferent de condiţiile de fotografiere.”

Life without Photoshop, by Augustin Popescu
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